Hopkins - MBA Trivia: Catfish Effect

挪威人愛吃沙丁魚,尤其活魚,漁民在海上捕得沙丁魚後,如果能讓他活著抵達港口,賣價就會比死魚高好幾倍。但由於沙丁魚生性懶惰,不愛運動,返航的路途又很長,因此捕撈到的沙丁魚往往一回到碼頭就死了,即使有些活的,也是奄奄一息。

只有一位漁民所收獲的沙丁魚是活的,而且非常生猛。該漁民生前都並未將成功要訣分享他人,直至他死後,人們打開他的魚槽才發現真相。原來該漁民將鯰魚裝入存放沙丁魚的魚槽中,利用沙丁魚的天敵鯰魚來激發牠們的求生意志,如此一來,沙丁魚為了生存便會不斷游動,活著回到港口。

後來管理人員便運用這一效應,通過個體的“中途介入”,對群體起到競爭作用,來實踐不同的管理目標。多用於團隊管理當中,不論傳統型團隊或自我管理型團隊亦十分適合。當團隊內部成員經過長時間工作而互相熟悉,就會缺乏活力與新鮮感,從而產生惰性。尤其是一些老員工,工作時間長了就容易厭倦、懶惰、倚老賣老,因此有必要找些外來的"鯰魚"加入團隊,製造一些緊張氣氛。

當"鯰魚"(新員工)加入團隊時,那些已經變得有點懶散的老隊員迫於對自己能力的證明和對尊嚴的追求,不得不再次努力工作,以免被新來的隊員在業績上超過自己。否則,老隊員的顏面就無處存放了。而對於那些在能力上剛剛能滿足團隊要求的隊員來說,"鯰魚"的加入,將使他們面對更大的壓力,稍有不慎,他們就有可能被清出團隊。為了繼續留在團隊裡面,他們也不得不比其他人更用功、更努力。

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